Organic chemistry made easy.


We know how many primary colors there are, how many primary touch sensations, and have a pretty good idea about primary tastes. We know how frequencies of sound are detected and that our sense of hearing processes by pitch and timbre. but what about smell? I attempt to unravel how olfaction is encoded and which notes combine to form familiar aromas.

Element Spectra

Different gases electrified in glass tubes produce distinctive colors of light. So do metals when sparked, or their salts in a flame. I've obtained as many pure elements as I could, in order to visually observe and photograph their spectra. The result is a collection of spectra in the visible region, and in a few cases the near infrared, whose line intensities can be considered the most accurate of available sources.


What does a sunflower look like to a honeybee? Or banana spots to a fruit fly? Do our pets see any of the colors in and around our homes? Can a painting of blue sky fool a pigeon? Are bats really blind? And what's up with the mantis shrimp anyway? I've collected data about many species of animal, both vertebrate and invertebrate, to understand how they might perceive color in their world and in ours.

Infrared Photography

The infrared region is a vast expanse, most of which has not been well explored. If a digital camera is made without an IR-block filter, it can be used to take pictures in near infrared, up to 1 micron wavelength, where leaves shine like silver, clouds loom brightly against a dark sky, and many of our plastic and fabric items appear much paler than we see them as. Out around ten times these wavelengths, we can take pictures that reveal temperature, since everything around us is glowing in thermal infrared at all times.

Ultraviolet Photography

Nature is full of organisms signalling each other in ultraviolet. Insects respond eagerly to these wavelengths, and most vertebrates see it as a fourth primary color. We mammals, including primates, are colorblind by comparison; in a tetrachromatic world, our trichromacy means we miss out on some really fascinating - and beautiful - sights. Luckily, specially designed cameras can reveal what our eyes fail to perceive.

The Genetic Code

Sixty-four codons? Twenty amino acids? Start and stop codons? Too complex! No one could possibly remember them all. Except yes you can, if you use these tricks.

Never allow politics to take precedence over scientific veracity.